Glossary of terms for describing tarantulas

Glossary of terms for describing tarantulas

Abdomen (opisthosoma)

“Abdomain” – “abdomen.”

Allopatric

“Allopatric” – two or more forms of the species, having substantially separated habitats.

Allotype

“Allotype” – an instance originating from a typical series of instances, but opposite in sex to an instance of a holotype.

Anterior

“Anterior” – the area located in front of closer to the head.

Anus

Anus is the anus excretory opening.

Aorta

” Aorta ” – the front, not having a camera narrow part of the heart, opening to the head region.

Apodeme tergal

“Apodeme tergal” – the place of attachment of internal muscles to the spider exoskeleton, located in the recess of the carp. Apodeme in the body of the spider together with the entosternum (entosternum) forms its inner skeleton (endoskeleton).

Apolysis

“Apolysis” is another word meaning the concept of changing the spider exoskeleton, or ecdysis.

Arachnida

“Arachnid” is a systematic section of arthropods, including scorpions, spiders, ticks, a salpug, etc.

Arboreal

“Arboreal” – living in -, – or among trees.

Basal

“Basal” – the basal (main) part of any part of the body, located closest to it directly.

Basitarsus

“Basitarsus” – the first segment of the tarsus legs – usually the largest.

Book lungs

“Book langs” is a respiratory organ consisting of a series of plate-like book pages.

Bulb, bulbus

“Bulb, bulbus” is one of the names for the part of the pedipalp of the male, which acts as a container for the preservation of sperm carrying the embolus.

Carapace (tergum)

“Karapas” is a one-piece shield covering the spider cephalothorax.

Cephalic

“Cephalic” – located on or adjacent to the head.

Cephalothorax (prosoma)

“Cephalothorax (millet)” – “cephalothorax”.

Chelicera

“Chelicera” – the mouth of the spider (jaw).

Chitin

“Chitin” is a horny “material”, chemically consisting of a nitrogen polysaccharide, mainly making up the cuticle (external integument) of arthropods.

Clypeus

“Clypeus” – a triangular-shaped front part of the tarantula’s carp, located above the labrum. Very clearly visible in tarantula Brachypelma emilia in the form of a dark-colored triangle in the head of the carp.

Coxa

“Cox” is the basal, main segment of the spider’s leg.

Cuticle

“Cuticle” – the outer cell-free layer of the membrane covering the delicate epidermis.

Cymbidium

“Cymbidium” – the upper segment of the pedipalpus of the male spider, which is a complex genital organ, the appearance of which, along with the shape of the female spermatheca, is taxonomic in determining the species of the spider.

Dimorphism

“Dimorphism” – differences in size, shape or color between specimens of the same species (“sexual dimorphism” – between individuals of the opposite sex).

Dorsal

“Dorsal” – located on the back or top of the animal.

Ecdysis

Ecdysis is a molting process by which the body changes its envelope to ensure growth.

Embolus

“Embolus” – an appendage of a sexually mature male spider, located on the cymbium, used as a copulative apparatus.

Endemic

“Endemic” – a group (genus, species) of organisms whose habitat (area) is located exclusively in a certain limited territory.

Endoskeleton

“Endoskeleton” – a complex structured system within the body of a spider that performs the functions of a “skeleton”.

Epigastric furrow

“Epigastric furrow” – a longitudinal slit-like depression between the two lungs of the anterior pair, which is the opening site of the genitals.

Exoskeleton

“Exoskeleton” – the outer “skeleton” of the spider.

Exuvium

“Exuvium” is an old spider exoskeleton remaining after molting.

Fang

“Fang” is the upper segment of the chelicera used to introduce poison.

Femur

“Femur” – the third segment of the spider’s leg (thigh).

Foregut

“Forgat” – the front of the food canal from the mouth to the stomach.

Fossorial

“Fossorial” – prone to digging.

Fovea (thoracic fovea)

“Fovea” – formation in the form of a tarantula in the form of a recess in the carp (thorax).

Ganglion

“Ganglion” – the “brain” of the spider, located inside the cephalothorax.

Habitus

“Habitus” (aka “habitus”) – the structure of the body, “appearance”.

Hemolymph

“Hemolymph” – the “blood” of a spider.

Homologous

“Homologous” – as a rule, organs or parts that are similar in structure to other organs or parts of the body and the way they are formed, but not necessarily performing similar functions.

Host

“Host” – the host organism, i.e. the organism in which another parasitic organism lives.

Instar

“Instar” – the age of the spider, determined by the interval between molts.

Labellum

“Labellum” – the extended end of the labium (labium).

Labium

“Labium” – the “lower lip” of the mouth of arthropods, formed by the “adhesion” (fusion) of two maxilla-like (jaw) processes.

Labrum

“Labrum” – the “upper lip” of the mouth of arthropods.

Lateral

“Lateral” – related to the back of the body or organ.

Malpighian tubes

“Malpighian organs (tubes)” – excretory channels of the arthropod organism.

Maxilla

“Maxilla” is one of the two components that make up the mouth, and located directly behind the jaws. They are used to identify and manipulate a food item.

Metatarsus

Metatarsus is the basal tarsus segment: usually the largest.

Moult

“Shedding” – change of exoskeleton.

Ocellus (pl. Ocelli)

Ocellus is one of the simple eyes, usually formed in groups of three to four pairs on the head.

Ocular tubercle An

“eye tubercle” is a triangular region that usually stands out well in the rest of the head on which the eyes are located.

Patella

“Patella” is the fourth segment of the spider’s leg.

Pedicel

“Pedicel” – a section of the spider’s body that connects the abdomen with the cephalothorax.

Pedipalp

“Pedipalp” – a pair of appendages, following chelicera and performing tactile functions, in males – secondary genital organs. Unlike legs, it carries one claw, not two.

Pharynx

“Pharynx” – the front of the intestine between the mouth and esophagus.

Posterior

“Posterior” – referring or facing back.

Pretarsus

“Pretarsus” is the seventh segment of the leg and pedipalp of a spider with claws. Some authors are not recognized as an independent segment and are included in tarsus.

Proximal

“Proximal” – referring to the main part of the appendages – the part closest to the base.

Rudimentary

“Rudimentary” – a weak or underdeveloped organ, part of it.

Sclerite

“Sclerite” – any solid part that makes up the exoskeleton.

Sclerotization

“Sclerotization” – the process of hardening and darkening of the cuticle due to sclerotin (sclerotin).

Scopula

“Scopula” – a group of hairs at the ends of the legs of a spider, allowing it to move on smooth surfaces.

Segment

“Segment” – one of the body parts or joints of the spider appendages.

Setae, trichobothria

“Seta, trichobotria” – sensory hairs of a spider.

Sigilla

“Sigilla” – “notch” on the sternum (sternum) of the spider.

Spermatheca

“Spermateca” – the internal organ of a spider female, the “pocket” of which is attached to the exuvium, which serves to store sperm.

Spermatophore

“Spermatophore” – “package” of sperm, deposited by the male.

Spinneret

“Spinneret” – paired spider web organs located at the end of the abdomen. Male tarantulas also have special glands in the epigastric groove, which they use when weaving sperm web.

Striae

“Stria” – furrows going through or along the body.

Stridulation

“Stridulation” is the ability to produce sounds by friction between different parts of the body.

Tarsus

“Tarzus” is the 6th segment of the spider’s leg. On 2,3,4 and 5 a pair of appendages consists of two false segments – basitarsus and telotarsus (often separated as independent). A number of authors consider him the last, in which case he is preceded by metatarsus (the leg has 7 segments).

Tergum

“Tergum” – the lower surface of any part of the body.

Tibia

“Tibia” – the fifth segment of the spider’s leg (lower leg). In mature males of many species carries a spur (tibial hook).

Tibial spur

“The tibial hook or” spur “is the hook-shaped outgrowth of the tibia pedipalp segment of most mature tarantulas, used to fix the female’s chelicera during mating.

Trochanter

“Trochanter” – the second segment of the spider’s leg.

Tubercle

“Tubercula” – the front of the “head” of the spider, on which eight simple eyes (ocellus) are located.

Venter, ventral

“Venter, ventral” – the lower surface or “belly” of the tarantula.

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